The “Os” Rune According to Guido Von List

  os, as, ask, ast = Gods* [Ase], Mouth [Mund], Formation or Emergence [Entstehung], Ash tree [Esche], Ashes [Asche].

A fourth still I know, when someone throws
my Arms and Legs into Fetters:
as soon as I sing it, I can go forth,
from my Feet fall the fetters,
the hasp falls from my hands.

The mouth, the power of speech!

Spiritual power working through speech (power of suggestion) bursts physical fetters and gives freedom, it conquers all conquerors (those who only gain advantages through physical force), and it destroys all tyranny.

(In the struggle for existence, the folk who always remain lasting winners are those who develop themselves with the preservation of their ethical force. With the disappearance of ethics, higher spiritual and intellectual rank is also lost, as history – the final judgment – will prove.)

Therefore: “Your spiritual force makes you free!”

-Paraphrase from The Mystery/Secret of the Runes [Das Geheimnis der Runen] (1908)
by Guido Von List

*Note: The Gods or ‘Ase’ specifically refers to “one of the Aesir/Æsir (Deities)”. In Old Norse an Ase, Ass or As (plural is Aesir) is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion. This pantheon includes Odin, Frigg, Thor, Baldr and Tyr. The second pantheon is known as the Vanir. In Norse mythology, the two pantheons wage war against each another, which results in a unified pantheon.


The “Os” & “Odil/Othil” Runes According to R.J. Gorsleben

Letter O and Number 4.
Odil, Os, the Symbol/Sign of Nobility and Leadership.

Odin’s Head in the Golden Helmet, revealing the pure Idea, but also the Mouth (Latin: Os) of God, in which the Word is at rest, not yet born [noch ungeboren]. Because OS is the unborn Suitor [Freier], as is mentioned in the Alphabet of St Gallen (a 9th century manuscript containing a Runic alphabet).

Its Ur-word is Gebotenes meaning “That which is offered” as well as Advisable, Desirable, Worthwhile.

“This I know as a fourth, if an enemy
Throws the ties on my hands and feet:
From the leg fall the ties, if I sing the song,
And the cuffs from the hands.”

OS Rune, as, ask ; and OTHIL Rune, Odal or Adel (Nobility). Os : Mouth, Origin, ace, birth, branch, ash tree, but in the demonic or inverse it also means carrion & ashes.

The Latin word Os refers not only to the mouth, but also to the genitals and to the female womb. Based on this, one can recognize the importance of the knowledge of the Ur -language from which we can derive all daughter languages in order to understand and explain every word of every language.

Os = mouth, womb; tar = procreate, “turn”; also “Os-tar” = procreation of the earth in Spring, at “Ostern” (Easter) time, during which the goddess of spring (Eostar or Ostara) had her festivities.

Ust, Ost, Ist mean becoming, emerging, appearing; to be, Sun, son. The Sun rises in the Est or East (Ost- en). The inverted form of Ostara strangely leads to a derivative that gives us the son of the Sun, who resurrects again at Easter time: Ostara = Arasto, Aristo, Haristo, Charisto, Ch(a)rist, Christ, Chri-uste, Ari-uste!

The Os Rune is specifically the Rune of speech and with its round form “O” shows the open mouth. The spiritual power of speech, or of the art of convincing, means to be stronger in words and with this, in spiritual procreation.

The stanza of the Rune Song refers to this Rune as ‘breaking the physical ties (or binds)’ and overwhelming the opponent who tries to force with threats of violence (the power of war). It destroys all material coercion.

Therefore it says: “Your power of spirit, your greater ethics, free you.” But the speech alone is not enough. The deed has to follow the word…

The OS Rune is the counterpart to the FA Rune. Its image is its reversal. If the FA Rune is “Va-Runa” (the sender, the giver), then the OS-Rune is “Osrun” as a female name (the receiving one).

FA = Phallus (penis) and OS = Schoss (womb)!

From the motherly Ur-ground of love grows all there is and into the motherly womb the unfolded world retires once again after the Aeons. It will rise again to a new sequence of creation, in the eternal change between being and non-being, fertilized by the masculine spirit, the breath of God. His breath became this world. If He inhales, then it does not exist any more, it returns to the One, into itself, into God, into “nothing”.

Therefore the OS-Rune is also the OD Rune or the OTHIL Rune, the Rune of the spirit, of the breath, or the power of breath of Wotan, Odin, Odem, Alman. Great powers are ascribed to it, and knowledge of acquiring this power reveals to us the breaking of ties (as referred to in the stanza of the Rune song).

In the form of the OTHIL Rune, the OS Rune has another meaning, that of Ot-hil: spiritual-salvation or the Rune of Odin-Wodan, of the nobleman, of Odal or Adel (Nobility).

-Paraphrase from The Peak-Time of Humanity [Die Hoch-Zeit der Menschheit] (1930)
by Rudolf John Gorsleben


The “Os” & “Othil” Runes According to Kummer & Other German Authors

(O) The O-Rune, Os; as, ask, ans, Ase (one of the gods), branch, ash, mouth, genesis, ace, birth.

Os, East [Osten ], Easter [Ostern ], Ostara (goddess of Spring).

Os is the rune of spiritual counsel, of persuasion and conviction, of power, of spiritual speech through spiritual generation through which one convinces and overcomes all brute force. It is the begotten spiritual power that breaks all physical fetters/bonds [fessel ]: everything lower is destroyed. For the spiritual word is also followed by action.

This rune hides great magical, force-giving [kraftgewinnende ], bond-busting Powers [fesselsprengende Gewalten ].

  Os = Womb, Osrun that which Receives, that which is Conceived by Spirit and Love becomes Action.

Os is the Rune of spiritual Speech, of Might, of Language; through Spiritual-procreation [Geistzeugung ], every Force can be conquered.

The reverse, inverse or ‘demonic’ of the Os-rune is: carrion (decaying flesh) and ash.

Note that the    Os-rune is also the    Othil-rune, the rune of breath, life-breath, world-breath, the Odes, and has another meaning in this form.

   Othil is the rune of Odin-Wotan, the rune of the spirit, of nobility; the elite deliberately begotten, crossed power under the roof of the universe.

Odin the Od-bringer, Odebar (the stork) who brings the children.

Wotan-Odin is a wind god, Thor-Donar the god of flame, of light, Frey the god of fertility. In the language of the ancients, breath is synonymous with spirit. Without the breeze no fire burns, without breath there is no life!

The reverse, inverse or ‘demonic’ of the Othil-rune is: improper procreation or creation, and when wisdom & spiritual salvation sinks into the darkness of the Ur.

Kummer says that this rune is associated with the sign of Cancer. – Numerical value 4.


• “Your Spiritual-Force [Geisteskraft ] makes you free.”
• “Your Ich [your Self, your real Being] sets you free, breaking all opposing Forces [Gewalten ].”
• “Whatsoever is Conceived by Spirit & Love becomes Action.”
• “From the maternal Ur-Cause of Love, all Being grows, and in the maternal Womb the unfolded World retreats back into the Aeons.”
• “Os: the Power of my Words magically grows, the Force of convincing Speech.”
• “Os: Rune of spiritual Speech, of Might, of Language; through Spiritual-procreation [Geistzeugung ], every Force can be conquered.”
• “Knowing the Os-Rune-Might [Os-Runenkraft ], I am the Recipient of high spiritual Currents. I receiving them and adjust myself to the enhancing of the Universal-Force Current [Einstrom fördernder Kräfte ].”
• “Oh, Othil ! Holy magical power of God!”
• “Othil : work spiritual Salvation [geistige Heil ] in me.”

Sound Formulas: “O”; as well as “Os”, “Ol”, “Othil”, “Odal”.

Full Body Rune Exercise:
1)    Os – Facing East, start with the passive Is-Rune position. Looking eastward, the practitioner stretches the left foot out, with the tip of his foot stretched out, and with the left arm stretched out obliquely downwards so that from the side one makes the shape of the Os rune. Vocalize or singing “O-o-o-s”.

After that, the student again takes the passive Is-Rune position, and turns to face the North. Looking northward, one stretches out the right leg sideways and the right arm downwards. Again vocalize or singing “O-o-o-s”.

Meditation and breathing exercises should not be missed in this practice. For both Os postures, there may be light ground contact with the toes of the stretched leg.

The    Os-rune position is a special absorbing and receiving position for higher, astral waves (while the reverse is the   Fa-rune, which is like a positive sending rune). There is a great magical power in this rune position; whoever feels it in its depth receives great spiritual power and eloquence. Often it is in this rune position that one is compelled to speak loudly.

2)    Othil – By spreading one’s legs and putting both inner palms together over the head so that the fingertips point upwards, one forms the    Othil-rune in this position. Then 7 rhythmic breaths follow. Vocalize the “O”.

Spiritual forces are now growing within, giving the ability to defeat all material and physical obstacles. One receives the power to destroy all that is animalistic and satanic; becoming victorious and one can break all fetters or bonds.

This rune possesses a great magical power which the practitioner must grasp and learn in all its depth. When they are well enough prepared, these forces will seize upon one’s organs of speech and then they will be astonished by advice and knowledge.

So you are called, dear brother and dear sister, to: “Set free your Ich [your Being], break all shackles/fetters [fessel].”

Hand Rune Exercise:
1) Os – Bend the thumb & index finger of the extended hand so that these fingertips touch (making a circle with the fingers).

2) Othil – The thumb & index fingers form the Rune. The other fingers are folded on the back of the hand, hands on the solar plexus, fingers tips point outward.

Sing the mantram while focusing on the reception of Solar powers. Soon you will feel a circulating vibration of energies in your hand. At the deepest tone they are felt in the feet. This is the sign of Odem, Ode and breath. This has a particularly rich effect of spiritual blessing for the conscious practitioner.

Often after this exercise the smell of ozone can be detected from the hand. The astral color vibration is bright violet.

Sing the mantram(s) while focusing on the reception of the holy magical power of God: Breath, Speech and the Action or Deeds which are their result.

This is the sign of Odem (meaning spirit, breath, life [similar to the Hebrew רוֹחַ‎ Ruach ]), as well as of Ode (poem) and of breath. The Rune Practices has a particularly rich effect of spiritual blessing for the conscious practitioner.

-Paraphrase from Holy Runic-Power [Heilige Runenmacht] (1932)
& Rune Magic [Runen-Magie] (1933) by Siegfried Adolf Kummer.
Possibly also from Karl Spiesberger’s Rune-Magic [Runenmagie] (1954) and/or
Friedrich Bernhard Marby’s Rune-Library [Runen-Bücherei] (1931-1935)


Additional Note: Kummer’s Comments on the Dangers of the Initiatic Path

In this same chapter on the Os and Othil Runes, Kummer gives the following commentary:

The student may now (depending on their stage of development) make many strange observations and discoveries. They may feel much freer, more powerful and more confident; their wishes and thoughts are realized, advice and help arrive punctually and unexpectedly. All obstacles and inhibitions will fall away according to the student’s maturity, while their magical powers will begin to unfold and take effect; their appearance, nature, and words are stronger and more powerful on their environment and make a greater impression.

But also a great responsibility grows with these powers, so that they are always aware of their deeds and actions as well as their consequences. At this stage it means for them: black or white. For this reason demonic and disharmonious influences often try to entice the aspiring initiates to black magic. So the student should be careful and take hold firmly in their hand; after some time these temptations are overcome and then one ascends into conscious knowing, into the wise magician, into the initiate.

Now the student should seek even more to overcome all lower selfish influences. In order to guard against repercussions, one should intensify their noble yearning for harmony and peace of mind; having high thoughts and longings must fully and completely become the standard. Thus one creates a strong resistance against the demonic influences, passions and weaknesses. It is easier for the practitioner to reach their goal. Clairvoyance, clairaudience and other experiences often occur in this stage of development, which are easily exploited by black-magical, demonic entities who pose as guardian spirits, spiritual advisers, great, dead geniuses, etc., who approach the student to misuse them for satanic, sinister purposes.

The student must never forget that if high divine powers are to be revealed in them, then that student must first and foremost be pure and in accordance with these powers. The high comes to the high, the pure comes to the pure, and one day the pure, true, spiritual master will reveal themselves to the student.

Kummer says that he must, again, warn the practitioner against lower, subtle entities that easily harass inexperienced occultists, often pretending to be Christ, sucking the student’s Od and then doing nonsense with it. The student must defend against such approaches energetically and with the greatest peace of mind and strength. And for this he recommends the Os-rune Body posture.

-Paraphrase from Holy Runic-Power [Heilige Runenmacht] (1932)


Rosicrucian and Gnostic

The “Os” and “Othil” or “Odil” (“Olin”) Runes According to Huiracocha

Beloved Disciple: Let’s go to the next Rune, the    OS Rune, which is under the influence of Scorpio.

Similar to the    FA Rune (which had its arms upwards), the   OS Rune has them downwards in the same way; and the other Rune, which is    Odil, is similar to Olin in Mexico, which is related with movement.

So, after having the arm placed at the waist (in the previous    Rune’s position), put both arms downwards and then both at the waist to complete the Mantram saying “THORN” like so: “T…….O……..R……..Nnnnn”.

When we remove the ‘N’, “TORN” becomes ‘TOR’, ‘DOR’ or “DOOR” and, this Rune is the door that opens for the attainment [logro ] of Internal Powers.

Let it be well understood, that the door is opened if we have charged ourselves with WILLPOWER and with what we call Insistence [Insistencia ].

OLIN in Aztec is the sign of Quetzacoatl God of the Wind, God of Life and thus OLIN is the Rune of respiration.

So you have to charge yourself, inundate yourself, with air, life, with Prana, inspiring through the nose and then exhaling the breath saying the “T…….O……..R……..Nnnnn.”

Armed, then, with Willpower and with the thought fixed or concentrated on creating magical forces, upon inhaling: the air is retained in the lungs each time while thinking:

I am all Power, all Will, and all Movement. In me the Thorn and Movement Runes are realized.”

From this moment on, the disciple must impose their willpower, feeling capable, making whatever they want prevail, but without hurting others, without ceasing to be kind, and affectionate to all. Nonetheless, from the whole of our being, there must be something imperative, so that others say: “This person is strong, and knows how to command.”

We should never say: “I can not do this or that”, instead one must said: “I CAN [YO PUEDO ]“.

If the magical-runic value of the    Thorn Rune is 3 or the Trinity, then the    OS Rune is represented by 4 and the two Runes together form the septenary.

Together, both Runes, represent (as we have said): Willpower, Action, the All, but also Death and Reincarnation, the Lap/Bosom, the Mouth, the Christ as Logos, Oratory and Respiration.

Above all, you have to do a previous concentration when doing the exercises.

The disciple must meditate that these practices are composed of a Septenary or the seven bodies, one encased within the other, and that their breath and their respiration, must permeate them all at the same time, producing in the interior something like an amalgam.

This should be done in such a way that the air goes to each of the bodies that corresponds in form also, that is to say, more material or more subtle, so that it acts and drives in all our vehicles. Thereby bringing the Cosmic Christ to us, so that we are led to the Divine Origin from which we have departed and to which we must return.

But before the latter concept becomes possible, we must try to act on our physical organism, on our body, which is our instrument, using the practices and exercises that have been carefully guarded for centuries & centuries by the Secret and Initiatic Societies among whom the Rose Cross Fraternity has always excelled as a guardian of Runic Magic.


-Paraphrase from Runic Course [Curso Rúnico] (1931-1935)
by Arnoldo Krumm-Heller (Huiracocha)
available in Gnostic-Rosicrucian Runology


The “Os” and “Othil” or “Odil” (“Olin”) Runes According to Samael Aun Weor

We must profoundly study the problem of Sexual Transmutation for single people. Samael Aun Weor said that the medicine against the subjective states that produce nocturnal pollutions is Sexual Magic. Yet, there is a need for clarification…

While we remain very alive (in other words, while we remain with the EGO existing in the 49 regions of the Subconsciousness), then erotic dreams will inevitably continue. What occurs is that through the practice of the Sahaja Maithuna (Sex-Yoga), the Chela (Disciple) becomes accustomed to refraining the sexual impulse and, thus, when an erotic dream occurs, then the mind refrains the sexual impulse instinctively. Clearly such a formula helps when one has continuity of purpose. Thus, daily practice is needed, year after year, with intensity.

Unfortunately, this formula only works when one has a spouse, but, what about those who are single, who do not have a spouse? Then what? Those who are single can and must utilize the creative energy for the Awakening of the Consciousness. What we need to know is the technique, so let us now enter, in full, into the fields of the OS Rune.

This Rune vibrates intensely with the Constellation of Scorpio, which is very important because this court of stars is found intimately related with the sexual organs. This is the same OLIN Rune of Aztec Mexico and it is esoterically related with the famous    THORN Rune.

Among the Aztecs, OLIN is the mystical symbol of the God of the Wind, the lord of Movement. The name of the corresponding angel is EHECATL. He was the one who intervened in the resurrection of Jesus by transmitting Prana (life) into the body of the Great Kabir, saying: “Jesus rise with your body from within your tomb.”

The angel EHECATL (the God of the Wind) is certainly an extraordinary Guru-Deva who lives in the World of Conscious Willpower and has power over the Sylphs of the Air. So now we can see the intimate esoteric relationship between the    OS and    THORN Runes (Movement and Willpower).

In the sacred land of the Pharaohs, the Sphinx corresponds to the Elemental Sphinx of Nature, who is the mysterious instructor of the Holy Devic College. All the Gnostic brethren would like to talk face to face with the Elemental Sphinx of Nature, to have a dialogue with the Devas, or to walk with EHECATL. But in order to do so, it is necessary to Awaken the Consciousness, to open the door, to call with persistence, to set our Willpower in motion (movement).

Observe very carefully the two diagrams of the OS & OTHIL Runes (collectively referred to as OLIN). In the same way that the FA Rune has its two arms upwards, the OLIN (or OS) Rune has them downwards, and this is profoundly significant.

PRACTICE: During these Esoteric practices, there is the need to successively alternate movements by placing the arms in the first position (downwards), then, in the second position (placing the arms on our waist as in the Dorn or Thorn Rune). You must combine the movement with harmonious and rhythmic breathing. Inhale the Prana through the nose, and exhale it through the mouth along with the mystical sound “TORN” (prolonging the pronunciation of each letter).

When inhaling, imagine the sexual forces rising, ascending from the sexual glands throughout the pair of sympathetic nervous cords (Ida and Pingala) reaching the brain, then afterwards continuing towards the heart. When exhaling, imagine the sexual energies entering the heart, and even penetrating more deeply, reaching the Consciousness in order to awaken it, striking it with force, with Thelema (Willpower), thus combining the Thorn and Movement Runes.

Afterwards, pray and meditate. Beseech the Father who is in secret, asking Him to awaken your Consciousness. Beseech your Divine Mother Kundalini, beg Her with infinite love to raise the sexual energies, to make them reach the heart and even further, to the very depth of your Consciousness. You must love & pray, meditate & supplicate. Build FAITH like the grain of mustard and move mountains. Remember that DOUBT is the beginning of ignorance. “Ask and it shall be given you, Knock and it shall be opened unto you.”

-Paraphrase from The Magic of the Runes [Magia de las Runas] (1969)
by Samael Aun Weor


Supplement: The “Thorn/Dorn” and “Odil” or “Olin” Rune Explained by Samael Aun Weor

1. In the standing position, the disciple will inhale and exhale rhythmically several times.

2. In keeping with the inhalation of air, the imagination and will must be united in vibrant harmony so as to make the Sexual Energy rise through the two ganglionic cords of the Spine until it reaches the Brain, Eyebrow Center, Neck and Heart, in successive order.

3. Then the breath will be exhaled, the disciple firmly imagining that the Sexual Energy is secured in the Heart.

4. Upon exhaling the breath the disciple will vocalize the Mantram “THORN” in this way: THOOOORRRRNNNN.

5. With the practice of the OLIN Rune, various movements of the arms should be carried out.

6. The disciple should place the right hand upon the waist.

7. He will extend both hands towards the left, the left hand being higher than the right, stretching the arms and forming a sharp angle with the trunk.

8. Place both hands upon the waist.

In this manner our single disciples of both sexes can transmute their Sexual Energy. The Sexual Energies are also transmuted via the Aesthetic Sense, with the Love of Music, Sculpture, and with long walks, etc. The single person who does not want to have sexual problems must be absolutely pure in thought, word and deed.

-From Ch.43 of The Initiatic Path in the Arcana of the Tarot and Kabbalah by Samael Aun Weor



The    THORN and     MOVEMENT Runes enclose the secret of our liberation.

It is necessary to have the force of the willpower in order to place the Kundalini into motion (movement).

The Hierarchies related with the elemental department of the cedar tree have the power to open the door of OLIN. This door is situated in the inferior orifice of the spinal medulla, and through it we enter the great mysteries of the fire.

The Mantram in order to open this door is THORN which is pronounced by prolonging the sound of each vowel as follows: Tooooorrrrrrrnnnn.

The Mantram THORN has the power to place the Pure Akasa into motion in order to awaken the Kundalini and to make it rise through each one of the thirty-three vertebrae of our spinal column. This Mantram has the power to reinforce the Pure Akasa within our Brahmanic cord.

OLIN, the sacred sign of the aztecs indians, is the door to enter into the great mysteries of the fire.

The exercises of OLIN must be performed by placing the right arm upon the waist; then both arms must be extended towards the left side of the body and, at the end, both arms must be placed upon the waist, while vocalizing the Mantram TORN.

The vocalization must be combined with inhalations and exhalations of pure air with the intention of carrying the vital Christ to each one of the seven bodies.

The OLIN sign [     ] is governed by the zodiacal sign of Scorpio which controls the sexual organs. We know that the whole power of the Kundalini is found in the Phallus and in the Uterus; and the secret for awakening the Kundalini is contained within the union of the two.

Nature has its origin in the fire and the entire power of the fire is found enclosed within our sexual organs.

-Paraphrase from Ch. 31 of Igneous Rose [Rosa Ignea] (1954)
by Samael Aun Weor


The Transmutation of water into wine within the womb of our organic laboratory is only possible when dominating the animal impulse by means of Music-Willpower.

We already know that Willpower is music itself, and this is why we affirm that Music-Willpower allows us to transmute our semen into Christic energy.

Therefore, Sexual Magic is ineffable music, it is an exquisite melody, transmuting the semen into the wine of light of the Alchemist.

If we consider the fact that only through the force of Willpower can we control the sexual act in order to transmute the water into wine, then we arrive at the logical conclusion that, for us, music is the only thing that can open the secret chambers of the Spinal Column.

Thus, we must not establish any distance between music and Willpower, because music and Willpower are one same thing.

Sexual Alchemy is only possible by learning how to play the lyre of our Willpower.

This is ARCANUM TWENTY ONE of the Tarot. This is the Third degree of the Fifth Serpent.

Music transforms men into Gods.

Those whose willpower is still weak must chant the    THORN Rune daily.

Disciples will perform this exercise by putting their right hand on their waist or hip, and subsequently they will vocalize the syllables: TI-TE-TO-TU-TA, prolonging the sound of each vowel; then immediately after they will vocalize the mantra Thorn as follows: Toooooooooooorrrrrrrrrrrnnnnnnnnnnnn.

With this explanation what we want to affirm is that the sound of each letter must be prolonged.

We know that for those whose willpower is weak, Sexual Magic is very arduous and difficult, and this is why we recommend our disciples first of all to practice the exercises of the    THORN Rune in order to acquire the force of Willpower, which will allow them to use Sexual Magic heroically.

Music-Willpower acts upon our waters (semen), transmuting it into Christic energy, that is to say, into the wine of light of the Alchemist.

The    THORN Rune is SOLAR and is governed by the Zodiacal Sign LIBRA. We already know that the Zodiacal sign LIBRA governs the Kidneys. Upon our Kidneys are two Chakras that register our degree of Chastity or our degree of animal fornication.

This is why the BIBLE states:

“Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit Fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.

And I gave her space to repent of her Fornication; and she repented not.

Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit Adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.

And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he who searcheth the kidneys and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.” – Revelation 2: 20-23

Clairvoyants can observe in the Chakras of the Kidneys a dirty red color in the fornicator, and an immaculate white color in the Chaste.

The Colors of the    THORN Rune are orange, green, and yellow. The precious stone of this RUNE is the CARNEOL (or Carnelian), and its metal is Gold.

Music-Willpower is the Sacred Arcanum of TRANSMUTATION. Music permits us to transmute water into wine.

-Paraphrase from Ch. 7 of Christic Willpower [Voluntad Cristo] (1959)
by Samael Aun Weor



– = Read the NEXT PART = –